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PUBLICATIONS

Book

I currently work on a book on regional integration entitled "The Emerging Autonomous Legal Order of the Eurasian Economic Union" under contract with Cambridge University Press. It is based on the concept of legal order autonomy and how this applies to the most profound integration attempt in Eurasian region to date. As the concept has been largely shaped by the European Union's integration experience, respective legal narratives also receive large coverage therein. The estimated UK/US publication date is May 2023.

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Selected publications

Article
 

Proportionality Principle for the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in AI and Ethics, 2022

 

 

This commentary explores the principle of proportionality as a possible solution to unresolved problems pertaining to the tensions among principles in various ethical frameworks for artificial intelligence.

Working Paper
 

Toward a Draft Text of a Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in UNESCO Digital Library, 2020
 

This working paper provides with background research and information for the UNESCO Recommendation on the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and was used as a starting point for its development.

Op-ed
 

Intelligence artificielle : un cadre normatif basé sur l'éthique (Artificial Intelligence: A Normative Framework Based on Ethics)


Authors: Gabriela Ramos, Maksim Karliuk

Published in Lexis360, 2021
 

L’UNESCO s’est engagée dans un processus de deux ans pour élaborer le premier instrument normatif mondial sur l’éthique de l’intelligence artificielle sous la forme d’une recommandation. Celle-ci devrait devenir une boussole éthique et un socle normatif permettant d’instaurer le respect de l’État de droit dans le monde numérique.

Report
 

Resource Guide on Artificial Intelligence (AI) Strategies


Authors: Wei Liu, Richard A. Roehl, Shantanu Mukherjee, Joe Hironaka, Dafna Feinholz, Maksim Karliuk, Prateek Sibal, Rachel Pollack, Shiyao Ke et al.

Published on the United Nations portal, 2021

 

The Resource Guide on Artificial Intelligence (AI) Strategies is a UN publication laying out existing resources on artificial intelligence ethics, policies and strategies on national, regional and international level.

Book Chapter
 

The Influence of CJEU Judgments on the Legal Order of the Eurasian Economic Union


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in Arie Reich and Hans-W. Micklitz (eds.), The Impact of the European Court of Justice on Neighbouring Countries, Oxford University Press, 2020
 

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)—an international organization for regional economic integration in post-Soviet space—has a judicial body aimed at ensuring uniform application of law. The predecessor of the EAEU—the Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC)—also had its own judicial body. This chapter presents findings on the impact of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) on the legal system of the EAEU through the lens of citations of CJEU cases by the EAEU and EURASEC courts. Both courts refer to CJEU case law extensively, sometimes even adopting similar approaches, albeit others choosing to pursue different paths. The chapter shows the relevant statistics, explores the relative impact of citations, presents several prominent examples of judgments, and provides possible explanations of the approaches taken.

Report
 

Развитие регулирования: новые вызовы в условиях радикальных технологических изменений (Developing Regulation: New Challenges within Radical Technological Changes)


Authors: Yuri V. Simachev, Mikhail Y. Blinkin, Anna Dupan, Alexey Ivanov,  Maksim Karliuk, Nadezhda Knyaginina, Daria Kotova et al.

Published at HSE University, 2019

 

Доклад подготовлен ведущими экспертами ряда научных подразделений НИУ ВШЭ – Центра исследований структурной политики, Института статистических исследований и экономики знаний, Института права и развития ВШЭ – Сколково, Института проблем правового регулирования, Информационно-координационного центра по взаимодействию с ОЭСР, Института экономики транспорта и транспортной политики, Института образования. Цель доклада – выделить отдельные вызовы в законодательном реагировании на технологические изменения и предложить возможные принципы «нового регулирования». В докладе выделяется ряд критических с позиций прорывного научно-технологического и экономического развития областей регулирования: регулирование оборота данных; искусственного интеллекта; беспилотного транспорта; рынков криптовалюты, рынков агротехнологий, при этом сопоставляется опыт различных стран, оцениваются преимущества и недостатки различных подходов к регулированию. На их основе обсуждаются новые вызовы в условиях радикальных технологических изменений и отдельные принципы «нового регулирования».

Article
 

The Disintegration of the Judiciary Within Eurasian Integration


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in Review of Central and East European Law, 2019
 

The Eurasian Economic Union (‘EAEU’) – an international organization for regional economic integration in post-Soviet space – has a judicial body aimed at ensuring uniform application of law. This article argues that the EAEU Court will struggle in achieving its aim as there are issues of independence, it has diminished powers, and limits have been imposed on its interpretative practices, at least as compared to its predecessor. This may lead to problems in respecting the rule of law and ‘dis-integrates’ the judiciary in the sense of a common system involving national courts. At the same  time, it is also argued that, although the Court’s procedural and substantive powers have been limited, the attempt to limit certain interpretative powers of the Court can hardly result in meaningful consequences for the development of law.

Article
 

Ethical and Legal Issues in Artificial Intelligence


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in International and Social Impacts of Artificial Intelligence Technologies, 2018
 

Ethics and law are inextricably linked in modern society, and many legal decisions arise from the interpretation of various ethical issues. Artificial Intelligence (AI) adds a new dimension to these issues. Systems that use artificial intelligence technologies are becoming increasingly autonomous in terms of the complexity of the tasks they can perform, their potential impact on the world and the diminishing ability of humans to understand, predict and control their functioning. Most people underestimate the real level of autonomy of these systems. They can learn from their own experience and perform actions their creators did not intend them to perform. That generates several ethical and legal difficulties that will be addressed in this article. 

Article
 

The Eurasian Economic Union: An EU-Inspired Legal Order and Its Limits


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in Review of Central and East European Law, 2017
 

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is a regional organization for economic integration in the post-Soviet space. Following the limited success of previous integration attempts, the organization aims to pursue deeper integration, borrowing features from the European Union. The EAEU has at its disposal a complex system of elements that make up a newly emerged legal order. This paper analyzes how these elements compare to those of the EU in order to determine how the legal changes that accompanied the creation of the EAEU affect its functioning and whether its legal order can be considered efficient compared to that of the EU. This article argues that the EAEU lags behind the EU both in terms of the autonomy of its legal order and in its ability to ensure the effective functioning of the organization. The EAEU’s supranational features are limited, as it relies predominantly on intergovernmental elements with a view to preserving the interests of all of its member states.

Article
 

Russian legal order and the legal order of the Eurasian Economic Union: and uneasy relationship


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in Russian Law Journal, 2017
 

Eurasian integration has created a new legal order – the so-called “Union law” of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). This legal order has its own narrative, principles, hierarchy of rules, and innovations such as the direct applicability of decisions of its regulatory body. Russian legal order is generally accommodating towards international law, which is equally applicable to Union law. However, the recent practice of the Russian Constitutional Court has claimed that Russia can set aside international obligations based on national constitution, which indirectly targets the viability of the EAEU legal order. This is further complicated by the Eurasian judiciary, which, as the main interpretative authority within the integration, has tried to take on an activist role, somewhat borrowing approaches from the European Union. In its turn, the Russian Constitutional Court has voiced its differences in certain approaches. This variability of practices and approaches clearly undermines the “unity” of the EAEU legal order and the interweaving of national and regional legal frameworks. This article analyses the relationship of the two legal orders to assess the possibilities for tensions between them. It points out the sources of such tensions, which lie in certain indeterminacies within the EAEU legal order, temptations to assert power, and recent far-reaching practices of the  Russian Constitutional Court.

Book Chapter
 

Cross-national diffusion in Europe


Authors: Ioannis Lianos, Mihály Fazekas and Maksim Karliuk

Published in Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli (eds.), Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment, Edward Elgar, 2016

 

The diffusion of the use of various forms of impact assessments (IAs) in different political settings and legal traditions illustrates its great malleability and the operation of various factors. This diversity is not only reflected in the adoption of different models of IA across the various jurisdictions examined, but also in the way this practice is effectively implemented. Factors explaining the various types of IA implemented in various European jurisdictions include the patterns of diffusion from one country to another, the interaction of politics with expert knowledge and the prevailing ‘evidence eco-system’ in each jurisdiction. The authors illustrate this phenomenon by exploring diffusion patterns not only in terms of the adoption of IA, but also in terms of the adoption of IA types. They do so by introducing a taxonomy developed with the purpose of describing the interaction of politics and expertise in each jurisdiction. The chapter is completed by empirically connecting the diffusion process with the type of IA prevalent in a jurisdiction.

Working Paper
 

The Diffusion of Impact Assessment Practices in Europe


Authors: Ioannis Lianos, Mihály Fazekas and Maksim Karliuk

Published in the University College London Centre for Law, Economics and Society Research Paper Series, 2014

 

The diffusion of the use of various forms of impact assessments (IAs) in different political settings and legal traditions illustrates the great malleability of the tool. This diversity is not only reflected in the adoption of different models of IA across the various jurisdictions examined, but also in the way this practice is effectively implemented. Factors explaining the various types of IA implemented in various European jurisdictions include the patterns of diffusion from one country to another, the interaction of politics with expert knowledge and the prevailing “evidence eco-system” in each jurisdiction. In this study we explore diffusion patterns, not only in terms of the adoption of the tool of IA, but also in terms of the specific types of IA implemented. We do so by introducing a taxonomy developed with the purpose to describe the interaction of politics and expertise in each jurisdiction. The last part of the chapter empirically connects the diffusion process with the type of IA prevalent in a jurisdiction.

Article
 

L'émergence de l'étude d'impact comme norme de gouvernance en Europe: genèse, diffusion et acteurs (The emergence of the impact assessment as a governance norm in Europe: genesis, diffusion, actors)


Authors: Ioannis Lianos and Maksim Karliuk

Published in Revue française d'administration publique, 2014

 

The emergence of the impact assessment as a governance norm in Europe: genesis, diffusion, actors — The article features special issues related to impact assessments in Europe by providing a historical introduction and an overview of impact assessment practices. The emphasis is put on the diffusion process of the strategic innovation of Impact Assessment in the European continent and on some thoughts on a possible path dependency regarding the development of impact assessment institutions. The study also reflects on the role of the different actors of the impact assessment process.

Article
 

Психологический гедонизм в ценностной интерпретации (Psychological Hedonism in Value Interpretation)


Author: Maksim Karliuk

Published in Philosophy, Language, Culture, 2014

 

This paper analyses the concept of psychological hedonism and its main criticisms. It proposes a new interpretation of the concept based on the values and principles of an individual. This interpretation allows defying major examples of criticisms based both on the theoretical inferences as well as the newest empirical evidence.

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